Etiologies of depression

For example, the presence of a comorbid anxiety disorder predicts a significantly worse course of depression and dysthymia Brown et al. Evaluation of the serotonin hypothesis of depression: The study is noteworthy for helping to shed further light on neurobiological mechanisms by which stressful environmental experiences eventuate in depression in some people but not others.

Analyze etiologies

The environment can act as a source of chronic stressors as well. A smaller proportion, less than 0. Lone mothers have higher risk of depression not only because of the presence of higher levels of chronic social stressors compared with two-parent families or even single parents residing with extended family but also because of their lower socioeconomic position.

In an epidemiological study of first episode of depression, more than 50 percent had a recurrence over the multiyear follow-up Eaton et al.

Longitudinal studies show that depression may result from marital difficulties Whisman and Bruce, Depression will most commonly be found among those facing chronically stressful conditions, such as social disadvantage and distressed relationships or lack of supportive and intimate relationships.

Course of Depression The course of depression may shed light on both treatment and prevention concerns and etiological issues.

A number of studies have investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin-related genes in the etiology of depression. Of course, the right therapy and medication is definitely essential in order to treat extreme depression.

Etiology of Depression

There is some evidence of a generally linear association between severity and number of negative events and the probability of depression onset Kendler, Karkowski, and Prescott, However, two key themes in the broader literature are important to note. The study found two important factors in the drive for thinness and disturbed patterns of eating: We need to know more about optimal timing and methods of intervention to prevent the development and escalation of depression in those at greatest risk—especially young people during their formative family and career years.

A related construct, ruminative response style, refers to a cognitive and behavioral coping strategy, employed mainly by women, for responding to negative emotions, particularly dysphoria. However, there is widespread agreement that postpartum major depression is not distinct in terms of etiology from depression at other times.

An interesting recent development in cognitive theories of depression is the study of the origins of depressogenic cognitive styles.

Neuroticism is a higher order personality dimension, defined by negative emotionality and high reactivity to real and perceived stress. Several people consume alcohol and drugs in order to eliminate the symptoms of depression they experience.

This explanation is contrary to traditional theories about depression where negative thinking is seen as a symptom of depression and not the cause.

Analyze etiologies

Role of parenting and maltreatment histories in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders: Social exclusion, which has played a key role in rendering these populations disproportionately vulnerable to and affected by incidence of depression, extends its adverse impact by limiting the engagement of and treatment in these historically unserved and underserved communities Aguilar-Gaxiola et al.

It could be the death of a parent, or a divorce that forces a child to experience such a loss. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49— Furthermore, as noted earlier, depression has been linked with inflammatory processes that underlie several major diseases.

Environmental Loss of Loved Ones: It may be highly predictive of major depressive episodes, and, especially if its onset is early in life, it is associated with slow recovery and high rates of relapse or continuing symptoms Klein, Shankman, and Rose, Downstream products of this process, including C-reactive protein CRPa molecule produced by the liver in response to IL-6, are used as an index of the inflammatory response.

Etiology of Depression

A related construct, ruminative response style, refers to a cognitive and behavioral coping strategy, employed mainly by women, for responding to negative emotions, particularly dysphoria. Video Transcript World Health Organization: Women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men and one reason could be linked to the stress of being responsible for many young children and lack of social support.

Etiology of depression now often includes consideration of social factors. Active forms of coping are associated with resilience in response to controllable stressors.

The second theme in resilience science is an increasing emphasis on integrative, multilevel research on resilience in developing systems, drawing on biological, personality, cognitive, social, family, and environmental constructs that work together to promote adaptation and self-regulatory processes Masten.

Before Westernization in Japan, depression was not seen as a disorder - instead it was seen as a need of spiritual guidance. They also welcomed and valued sadness as an inevitable part of life. After westernization, Western symptoms of depression have become more common.

Depression, particularly in teenage years is common, and may be the result of anything ranging from a breakup or failing to make it into the school sports team. Depression may be treated with the help of medication, which mainly includes antidepressants, and psychotherapy and counseling.

Depression in someone who has the biological vulnerability to develop depression may result from personal conflicts or disputes with family members or friends.

Death or a loss.

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Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a loved one, though natural, may increase the risk of depression. Genetics. A family history of depression may increase the risk. The purpose of this chapter is to review what is known or suspected about the causes of depression.

Fundamentally, such depressive symptoms as sad mood, pessimism, and lethargy, are universal human experiences and are considered normal reactions to the struggles, disappointments, and losses of. The purpose of this chapter is to review what is known or suspected about the causes of depression.

Fundamentally, such depressive symptoms as sad mood, pessimism, and lethargy, are universal human experiences and are considered normal reactions to the struggles, disappointments, and losses of everyday life. Analyze etiologies (in terms of biological, cognitive and/or sociocultural factors) of one disorder from two of the following groups: anxiety disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders.

Etiology means the scientific study of causes or .

Etiologies of depression
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